Ultrasound Scanning

Contents
  1. Ultrasound Scanning & Protocols Within the Primary Health Care 
  2. Neck Ultrasound upper
  3. Abdominal ultrasound
  4. Abdominal Aorta Ultrasound
  5. Urinary Tract Ultrasound
  6. Scrotal or Testicular Ultrasound
  7. Per abdominal Prostatic size & Pre/Post Void Bladder Volumes
  8. Female Gynae Per abdominal Pelvic ultrasound
  9. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS)
  10. Leg Doppler for DVT’s
  11. Frequently asked questions and answers
  12. GP Guide Lines and Steering committee
 
ULTRASOUND SCANNING AND PROTOCOLS WITHIN THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

Introduction:
The provision of ultrasound services within the primary health care environment is an excellent development, which would be of immense benefit to the patient and their GP or family Physician.
 
In physical and scientific terms, ultrasound is like ordinary sound that we hear, except that it has a frequency much higher than what humans can hear.  Normal human hearing operates over a frequency range of approx. 20Hz to 20,000 Hz.  (1 Hz or Hertz is defined as 1 cycle per sec.)  By definition therefore, sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 Hz fall into the rang of ultrasound frequency range of between 2 Mhz to 12 Mhz.  (1 Mhz or Megahertz is 1 million cycles per sec).  The frequency used depends on the type of examination and the build of the patient. 
 
As Ultrasound travels through human tissues and body, it Interacts with the body anatomy in such a way that allows us to use if for cross sectional and dynamic imaging.
 

A few advantages in Primary Healthcare Ultrasound service would include:
  • Provision in a familiar and comfortable environment to the patient usually close to home.
  • Will be Consultant-led and Consultant provided (ultrasound examinations will be performed and reported by Consultant Radiologists who will also explain the findings to the patient.
  • Very minimal or no waiting times.
  • Scans will be reported and dispatched to the GP within 48 hours.
  • Promotes the desirable very close liaison between the GP and Consultant Radiologist, in the interest of patient care.  When urgent or significant pathologic findings are detected during ultrasound examinations, these will be communicated and fully discussed with the GP as quickly as possible (usually at the end of  the examination).
  • A normal scan will be reassuring for the patient and the GP’s or will prompt further evaluations as may be appropriate.
  • Early diagnosis of pathologic lesions which will improve early detection and treatment of various illnesses including neoplasms.
  • Ultrasound imaging does not utilize ionizing radiation.  It is a relatively cheap service to provide and can be used in all groups.
 
UPPER ABDOMINAL ULTRASOUND

Preparation:
                Fasting or starving for 6 hours.

Common Indications:
  1. Acute and chronic RUQ due to gallstones +/-cholecystitis.
  2. Jaundice
  3. Upper abdominal /epigastric pains.
  4. Palpable upper abdominal masses within solid organs such as liver, spleen pancreas, kidneys and other intra-abdominal masses.
Common Pathologies:
  1. Gallstones +/- cholecystitis
  2. Obstructive and non-obstructive jaundice
  3. Hepatosplenomegaly
  4. Liver fatty Change
  5. Follow-up or hepatitis for early detention of liver tumours
  6. Pancreatitis and its complications
  7. Pancreatic neoplasm.
  8. Ascites
  9. Focal livery and splenic lesions
  10. Retroperiotoneal masses such as adenopathy
  11. Kidneys obstruction
  12. Renal calculi
  13. Cysts and solid renal neoplasm.
Technique:
  1. Patient examined in supine position
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